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TOPICS
Formulae

Closure Property :-
```1. Addition : a + b
2. Substraction : a - b
3. Multiplication : a x b
4. Division : a ÷ b
```
Commutative Property :-
```1. Addition : a + b = b + a
2. Substraction : a - b = b - a
3. Multiplication : a x b = b x a
4. Division : a ÷ b = b ÷ a
```
Associative Property :-
```1. Addition : (a + b) + c = a + (b + c)
2. Substraction : (a - b) - c = a - (b - c)
3. Multiplication : (a x b) x c = a x (b x c)
4. Division : (a ÷ b) ÷ c = a ÷ (b ÷ c)
```
```1. a + 0 = 0 + a = a, where a is a whole number
2. b + 0 = 0 + b = b, where b is an integer
3. c + 0 = 0 + c = c, where c is a rational number
```
Multiplicative identity :-
```1. a x 1 = 1 x a = a, where a is a whole number
2. b x 1 = 1 x b = b, where b is an integer
3. c x 1 = 1 x c = c, where c is a rational number
```
```1. a + (– a) = (– a) + a = 0; so, a is the negative of – a and – a is the negative of a.
2. a/b + (-a/b) = (-a/b) + a/b = 0
3. Reciprocal : a/b x c/d = 1
```
Distributive Property :-
```1. Addition : a(b + c) = ab + ac
2. Substraction : a(b – c) = ab – ac
```
CLASSES