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Introduction

Principle of Mathematical Induction

In algebra or in other discipline of mathematics, there are certain results or statements that are formulated in terms of n, where n is a positive integer. To prove such statements the well-suited principle that is used–based on the specific technique, is known as the principle of mathematical induction.

Suppose there is a given statement P(n) involving the natural number n such that

(i) The statement is true for n = 1, i.e., P(1) is true, and

(ii) If the statement is true for n = k (where k is some positive integer),
then the statement is also true for n = k + 1, i.e., truth of P(k) implies the truth of P (k + 1).

Then, P(n) is true for all natural numbers n.

This is sometimes referred to as the inductive step. The assumption that the given statement is true for n = k in this inductive step is called the inductive hypothesis.

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